I am interested in an interdisciplinary field between systems engineering (especially robotics) and nano-bio engineering. Varieties of systems, from nanoscale to macroscale, have been developed with my colleagues and collaborators, using DNA nanoengineering as a core technology and by combining with a wide range of nano- and micro-scale technologies. The list below includes main works I did in both Molecular Robotics Lab (Assistant Professor) and Luo Lab (Research Associate).

Machines & Robots

  • Meso-microscale: DNA-based machines powered by artificial metabolism [NEW]
    • Slime-like machines with emergent locomotion behaviors were created by artificial metabolism
    • The machines locomote and also perform "racing" by competing each other
    • The machines will be used as a platform of molecular robots with life-like characteristics
A DNA-based machine with emergent locomotion behavior. The movement is represented by an overlay of snapshots at different timepoints (from purple to green).

Material systems

  • Meso-microscale: Dynamic self-regenerating DNA material by artificial metabolism [NEW]
    • DNA-based material with artificial metabolism was developed by coupling synthesis of DNA and assembly of DNA into mesoscale patterns
    • Dynamic and autonomous generation and degeneration of patterns were achieved by the material
    • Applications, such as machines (see above), point-of-care (POC) pathogen detection platform, hybrid materials, biofunctional materials etc. were demonstrated
  • Macro (Bulk) scale: DNA hydrogels
    • Biofunctionalized material for architectural building blocks (Collaboration with Sabin Lab (Cornell))
    • Stimuli-responsive materials
Macroscale: DNA Hydrogel - Ceramic hybrid component (PolyBrick 3.0)


  • T-motif: an "artificial" DNA junction for nanostructures
    • 1-D and 2-D Nanostructures (Ladder, Planar, Rings)
    • Chemical self-replication system (self-replicating DNA rings) (Collaboration with Park Lab (SKKU))
  • Substrate-assisted self-assembly: scaling-up technology for DNA self-assembly
    • Fabrication of micron-scale 2-D crystals
  • DNA-origami-based polymorphic nanostructures
Schematics of T-motif